Contactin-1 IgG4 antibodies cause paranode dismantling and conduction defects.

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Contactin-1 IgG4 antibodies cause paranode dismantling and conduction defects.

Brain. 2016 Mar 26;

Authors: Manso C, Querol L, Mekaouche M, Illa I, Devaux JJ

Abstract
Paranodal axoglial junctions formed by the association of contactin-1, contactin-associated protein 1, and neurofascin-155, play important functions in nerve impulse propagation along myelinated axons. Autoantibodies to contactin-1 and neurofascin-155 define chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy subsets of patients with specific clinical features. These autoantibodies are mostly of the IgG4 isotype, but their pathogenicity has not been proven. Here, we investigated the mechanisms how IgG subclasses to contactin-1 affect conduction. We show that purified anti-contactin-1 IgG1 and IgG4 bind to paranodes. To determine whether these isotypes can pass the paranodal barrier, we incubated isolated sciatic nerves with the purified antibody or performed intraneural injections. We found that IgG4 diffused into the paranodal regionsin vitroor after intraneural injections. IgG4 infiltration was slow and progressive. In 24 h, IgG4 accessed the paranode borders near the nodal lumen, and completely fill the paranodal segments by 3 days. By contrast, control IgG, anti-contactin-1 IgG1, or even anti-contactin-associated-protein-2 IgG4 did not pass the paranodal barrier. To determine whether chronic exposure to these antibodies is pathogenic, we passively transferred anti-contactin-1 IgG1 and IgG4 into Lewis rats immunized with P2 peptide. IgG4 to contactin-1, but not IgG1, induced progressive clinical deteriorations combined with gait ataxia. No demyelination, axonal degeneration, or immune infiltration were observed. Instead, these animals presented a selective loss of the paranodal specialization in motor neurons characterized by the disappearance of the contactin-associated protein 1/contactin-1/neurofascin-155 complex at paranodes. Paranode destruction did not affect nodal specialization, but resulted in a moderate node lengthening. The sensory nerves and dorsal root ganglion were not affected in these animals. Electrophysiological examination further supported these results and revealed strong nerve activity loss affecting predominantly small diameter or slow conducting motor axons. These deficits partly matched with those found in patients: proximal motor involvement, gait ataxia, and a demyelinating neuropathy that showed early axonal features. The animal model thus seemed to replicate the early deteriorations in these patients and pointed out that paranodal loss in mature fibres results in conduction defects, but not conduction slowing. Our findings indicate that IgG4 directed against contactin-1 are pathogenic and are reliable biomarkers of a specific subset of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients. These antibodies appear to loosen the paranodal barrier, thereby favouring antibody progression and causing paranodal collapse.

PMID: 27017186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does ability to walk reflect general functionality in inflammatory neuropathies?

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Does ability to walk reflect general functionality in inflammatory neuropathies?

J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2016 Mar 10;

Authors: Draak TH, Gorson KC, Vanhoutte EK, van Nes SI, van Doorn PA, Cornblath DR, van den Berg LH, Faber CG, Merkies IS, PeriNomS Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The "ability to walk" is considered a benchmark for good clinical recovery and prognosis, particularly in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). However, it has never been determined whether being "able to walk" represents general functionality.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the ability to walk outside independently reflects general functional improvement in patients with GBS, CIDP, and gammopathy-related neuropathy (MGUSP).
METHODS: A total of 137 patients with newly diagnosed (or relapsing) GBS (55), CIDP (59), and MGUSP (23) were serially examined (1-year). Predefined arbitrary cut-offs (so-called patients' Functional-Acceptable-Clinical-Thresholds [FACTs]) were taken at the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the Inflammatory-Rasch-built-Overall-Disability-Scale (I-RODS(©) ). We determined the proportion of patients able to walk outside independently that reached the postulated cut-offs.
RESULTS: A mean total of 85%, 39%, and 12% of all patients able to walk reached 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile thresholds, respectively. These findings were not neuropathy type related.
CONCLUSION: Our findings show that assessing only one construct of functionality (e.g. walking ability) does not reflect the full scope of daily/social functional deficits perceived by patients. The ability to walk shows a patient is doing better, but not necessarily doing well. The I-RODS(©) bypasses these limitations.

PMID: 26968437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]