Anti-NF155 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy strongly associates to HLA-DRB15.

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Anti-NF155 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy strongly associates to HLA-DRB15.

J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Nov 16;14(1):224

Authors: Martinez-Martinez L, Lleixà MC, Boera-Carnicero G, Cortese A, Devaux J, Siles A, Rajabally Y, Martinez-Piñeiro A, Carvajal A, Pardo J, Delmont E, Attarian S, Diaz-Manera J, Callegari I, Marchioni E, Franciotta D, Benedetti L, Lauria G, de la Calle Martin O, Juárez C, Illa I, Querol L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aim of the research is to study the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele frequencies in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) associated with anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibodies.
METHODS: Thirteen anti-NF155+ and 35 anti-NF155 negative (anti-NF155neg) CIDP patients were included in a case-control study. The frequencies of the DRB1 HLA allele were analyzed in all patients while DQ frequencies were only studied in patients sharing the DRB1*15 allele. In silico HLA-peptide binding and NF155 antigenicity, predictions were performed to analyze overlap between presented peptides and antigenic regions.
RESULTS: DRB1*15 alleles (DRB1*15:01 and DRB1*15:02) were present in 10 out of 13 anti-NF155+ CIDP patients and in only 5 out of 35 anti-NF155neg CIDP patients (77 vs 14%; OR = 20, CI = 4.035 to 99.13). DRB1*15 alleles appeared also in significantly higher proportions in anti-NF155+ CIDP than in normal population (77 vs 17%; OR = 16.9, CI = 4.434 to 57.30). Seven anti-NF155+ CIDP patients (53%) and 5 anti-NF155neg CIDP patients had the DRB1*15:01 allele (OR = 7, p = 0.009), while 3 anti-NF155+ CIDP patients and none of the anti-NF155neg CIDP patients had the DRB1*15:02 allele (OR = 23.6, p = 0.016). In silico analysis of the NF155 peptides binding to DRB1*15 alleles showed significant overlap in the peptides presented by the 15:01 and 15:02 alleles, suggesting functional homology.
CONCLUSIONS: DRB1*15 alleles are the first strong risk factor associated to a CIDP subset, providing additional evidence that anti-NF155+ CIDP patients constitute a differentiated disease within the CIDP syndrome.

PMID: 29145880 [PubMed - in process]

Antibodies against peripheral nerve antigens in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

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Antibodies against peripheral nerve antigens in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 31;7(1):14411

Authors: Querol L, Siles AM, Alba-Rovira R, Jáuregui A, Devaux J, Faivre-Sarrailh C, Araque J, Rojas-Garcia R, Diaz-Manera J, Cortés-Vicente E, Nogales-Gadea G, Navas-Madroñal M, Gallardo E, Illa I

Abstract
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disease in which diverse autoantibodies have been described but systematic screening has never been performed. Detection of CIDP-specific antibodies may be clinically useful. We developed a screening protocol to uncover novel reactivities in CIDP. Sixty-five CIDP patients and 28 controls were included in our study. Three patients (4.6%) had antibodies against neurofascin 155, four (6.2%) against contactin-1 and one (1.5%) against the contactin-1/contactin-associated protein-1 complex. Eleven (18.6%) patients showed anti-ganglioside antibodies, and one (1.6%) antibodies against peripheral myelin protein 2. No antibodies against myelin protein zero, contactin-2/contactin-associated protein-2 complex, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, gliomedin or the voltage-gated sodium channel were detected. In IgG experiments, three patients (5.3%) showed a weak reactivity against motor neurons; 14 (24.6%) reacted against DRG neurons, four of them strongly (7.0%), and seven (12.3%) reacted against Schwann cells, three of them strongly (5.3%). In IgM experiments, six patients (10.7%) reacted against DRG neurons, while three (5.4%) reacted against Schwann cells. However, results were not statistically significant when compared to controls. Immunoprecipitation experiments identified CD9 and L1CAM as potential antigens, but reactivity could not be confirmed with cell-based assays. In summary, we describe a diverse autoantibody repertoire in CIDP patients, reinforcing the hypothesis of CIDP's pathophysiological heterogeneity.

PMID: 29089585 [PubMed - in process]

Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

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Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

Lancet Neurol. 2017 Oct 20;:

Authors: Howard JF, Utsugisawa K, Benatar M, Murai H, Barohn RJ, Illa I, Jacob S, Vissing J, Burns TM, Kissel JT, Muppidi S, Nowak RJ, O'Brien F, Wang JJ, Mantegazza R, REGAIN Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in this patient population in a phase 3 trial.
METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (REGAIN) in 76 hospitals and specialised clinics in 17 countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) score of 6 or more, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class II-IV disease, vaccination against Neisseria meningitides, and previous treatment with at least two immunosuppressive therapies or one immunosuppressive therapy and chronic intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange for 12 months without symptom control. Patients with a history of thymoma or thymic neoplasms, thymectomy within 12 months before screening, or use of intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange within 4 weeks before randomisation, or rituximab within 6 months before screening, were excluded. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either intravenous eculizumab or intravenous matched placebo for 26 weeks. Dosing for eculizumab was 900 mg on day 1 and at weeks 1, 2, and 3; 1200 mg at week 4; and 1200 mg given every second week thereafter as maintenance dosing. Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive voice or web-response system with patients stratified to one of four groups based on MGFA disease classification. Where possible, patients were maintained on existing myasthenia gravis therapies and rescue medication was allowed at the study physician's discretion. Patients, investigators, staff, and outcome assessors were masked to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to week 26 in MG-ADL total score measured by worst-rank ANCOVA. The efficacy population set was defined as all patients randomly assigned to treatment groups who received at least one dose of study drug, had a valid baseline MG-ADL assessment, and at least one post-baseline MG-ADL assessment. The safety analyses included all randomly assigned patients who received eculizumab or placebo. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997229.
FINDINGS: Between April 30, 2014, and Feb 19, 2016, we randomly assigned and treated 125 patients, 62 with eculizumab and 63 with placebo. The primary analysis showed no significant difference between eculizumab and placebo (least-squares mean rank 56·6 [SEM 4·5] vs 68·3 [4·5]; rank-based treatment difference -11·7, 95% CI -24·3 to 0·96; p=0·0698). No deaths or cases of meningococcal infection occurred during the study. The most common adverse events in both groups were headache and upper respiratory tract infection (ten [16%] for both events in the eculizumab group and 12 [19%] for both in the placebo group). Myasthenia gravis exacerbations were reported by six (10%) patients in the eculizumab group and 15 (24%) in the placebo group. Six (10%) patients in the eculizumab group and 12 (19%) in the placebo group required rescue therapy.
INTERPRETATION: The change in the MG-ADL score was not statistically significant between eculizumab and placebo, as measured by the worst-rank analysis. Eculizumab was well tolerated. The use of a worst-rank analytical approach proved to be an important limitation of this study since the secondary and sensitivity analyses results were inconsistent with the primary endpoint result; further research into the role of complement is needed.
FUNDING: Alexion Pharmaceuticals.

PMID: 29066163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]